About the artist
Édouard Manet (1832–1883) was a French painter and printmaker, a 19th-century artistic rebel. He inherited wealth from his disapproving father and sought traditional success. Influenced by the Old Masters and Spanish painters, he faced criticism for his modernity. Manet's avant-garde reputation grew among Impressionists, though he remained somewhat distant. His technique became freer under their influence. Battling illness, he turned to pastels, creating the stunning A Bar at the Folies-Bergère. Honors came late, and he died in agony. Manet's work spanned various subjects, displaying freshness and spontaneity while exploring the act of painting. He is considered a founder of 'modern' art.